A.O.J. – What does it mean?

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Reposted from 2012 – because this is so important.

This is an excerpt from personal defense solutions by Dr. Bruce Elmer

Let’s examine what Ayoob teaches about the circumstances that justify the use of deadly force:

As civilians our only obligation and right is to keep ourselves and our families from being unlawfully injured or killed. We may only use equal force in response to the application of force against us. If we are not innocent of provoking a confrontation, or we are not being immediately threatened with deadly force, we cannot use deadly force in response. This is unlike the obligation of a sworn police officer who may use necessary force to fulfill his or her duties, such as seeking out and arresting malefactors.

Ayoob teaches a formula for determining the circumstances under which we would be justified in employing deadly force. The formula is both simple and yet complex. Deadly force is justified when you are confronted with “an immediate and otherwise unavoidable danger of death or grave bodily harm” to either yourself or other innocents, whose innocence and situation you are totally certain about. You can’t intervene with deadly force in a situation you come upon without knowing what’s really happening. Don’t make assumptions based on what seems to be happening. The danger must be clear and present, immediate and unavoidable. This formula is based on English Common Law and Dutch/Roman Law, and it applies in all fifty states. It is determined by three criteria which can be remembered by the acronym A.O.J. Think “Administration Of Justice”. The situation must meet all three criteria.

A = Ability. The person deemed to be a threat must possess the ability or power to kill or maim.

O = Opportunity. The person deemed to be a threat must be capable of immediately employing his power to kill or maim.

J = Jeopardy. This means that the person deemed to be a threat must be acting in such a manner that a reasonable and prudent person would conclude beyond doubt that his intent is to kill or cripple.

All of the above are judged by the doctrine of the “reasonable man”. That is, what would a reasonable and prudent person have done in that situation knowing what the defendant knew at the time? After the fact information is inadmissible into the equation. Your defense of self-defense is affirmative if you knew all of the above at the time you employed deadly force.

Child’s First Shotgun…

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HOW TO BUY A CHILD’S FIRST SHOTGUN

I hope that you have not forgotten what it was like to be a 10-year-old kid on Christmas morning. Now add to that you are a kid in a hunting and shooting family. You have been wishing, hoping, and praying that you will see that new gun under the tree. Can you remember this? Think of Ralphie in A Christmas Story. A lot of our hunting traditions are going by the wayside; I hope that this one has not. I think it does a kid good to hope for the present he or she desires with all their little heart. Hopefully Mom and Dad are on the same wave length, and agree that they are ready for this firearm, and so that long, slender package will be there on Christmas morn. This now leaves Dad and/or Mom to make the right choice and buy our little guy or girl the right shotgun. Get ready for a lecture.

IF YOU GREW UP LIKE I DID, “back in the day,” most kids got whatever shotgun that was handy shoved in their hands, and were basically told to shoot it and don’t complain. Often the young
shooter was laughed at after some old blunderbuss knocked them for a loop after they pulled the trigger. Now let’s see, you give a kid a shotgun that doesn’t fit, it is too big and too heavy, the recoil of which could make a grown man cry. Do we see a problem here? Friends, bad shooting habits can follow us for a lifetime; sometimes it is not our fault. The kid who was forced to shoot Uncle Bill’s Model 97 will never forget that it kicked like the proverbial mule.

He developed a flinch that day, which may very well follow him to the grave. I recently attended Remington’s new products seminar near Fayetteville, W.V. I felt privileged to be there, as the list of people attending consisted of most of the heavy hitters in the outdoor media and shooting industry world. But I will tell you this: on the shotgun range (where Remington was unveiling a brand-new shotgun for 2015), I saw people who I think of as better shotgun shooters than me reveal some bad flinches. You’ve seen it; while using a gun that you are unfamiliar with, you call “pull,” and the bird goes up but the safety is on. You yank the trigger; the barrel akes a big dip downward. Now where might that flinch have come from?

I HAVE MENTIONED BEFORE about working with young people at various shooting functions: National Wild Turkey Federation Jakes Days, Youth Day at the Range and the like. Watch the kid who picks up an ill-fitting shotgun that s too big and heavy for him/her. Most will lean back and heave the gun to their shoulder, usually snagging the stock under their arm because it is too long or them. A gun that fits them allows the young shooter to stand straight and push the gun towards the target as they shoulder it, like we are supposed to do.

Think about this: It is important to get a shotgun that fits your son or daughter now, not one that they “will grow into.” While you are waiting for them to grow into this gun, how many bad days in the field will they have and how many bad habits will they acquire because of a shotgun that is too big and heavy for them?

I want you to consider the pump shotgun for a child’s first gun rather than the auto loader. Now, I do not think there is anything wrong with the auto loader, but pump guns are generally lighter than autos and are easy for small hands to operate. They are safer to operate when it comes to loading more than one shell, and they are usually less expensive. So I am going to offer you a couple of choices that you can consider for the young shooter’s first shotgun.

kidshotgunThe first is Remington’s Model 870 Compact Jr. Most youth model shotguns feature a 13-inch length of pull. The 870 Compact Jr. has a 12-inch length of pull, to better fit the smaller shooter, and this feature is adjustable so it can be increased as the shooter grows. All this and the reliability of the Remington 870: can over 10 million, 870 owners be wrong?

kidshotgun2Next is the Mossberg 500 Bantam All Purpose. This gun starts with a 13-inch length of pull, however, the Super Bantam model gives you a 12- to 13-inch adjustable stock, and multiple barrel lengths are available. Other options include 12, 20 and .410 bore. I would go for the 20 gauge; don’t start them with a .410. I realize that it may have been your first shotgun, as was mine. Don’t forget lightly loaded shells for the starting shotgunner are just as
important as a gun that fits properly. Let them practice and shoot on paper with target loads; if you are going to turkey hunt, save the heavy stuff for the woods. Remington offers their Managed Recoil STS Target Loads; shell out another dollar or two for a box
of shells that the kid can enjoy shooting. Get that kid a shotgun for Christmas! Not just any shotgun, but one that fits them. Both of you will be glad you did. WSJ

Written by Larry Case

A.O.J. What does it mean?

Tags

, , , ,

Reposted from 2012 – because this is so important.

This is an excerpt from personal defense solutions by Dr. Bruce Elmer

Let’s examine what Ayoob teaches about the circumstances that justify the use of deadly force:

As civilians our only obligation and right is to keep ourselves and our families from being unlawfully injured or killed. We may only use equal force in response to the application of force against us. If we are not innocent of provoking a confrontation, or we are not being immediately threatened with deadly force, we cannot use deadly force in response. This is unlike the obligation of a sworn police officer who may use necessary force to fulfill his or her duties, such as seeking out and arresting malefactors.

Ayoob teaches a formula for determining the circumstances under which we would be justified in employing deadly force. The formula is both simple and yet complex. Deadly force is justified when you are confronted with “an immediate and otherwise unavoidable danger of death or grave bodily harm” to either yourself or other innocents, whose innocence and situation you are totally certain about. You can’t intervene with deadly force in a situation you come upon without knowing what’s really happening. Don’t make assumptions based on what seems to be happening. The danger must be clear and present, immediate and unavoidable. This formula is based on English Common Law and Dutch/Roman Law, and it applies in all fifty states. It is determined by three criteria which can be remembered by the acronym A.O.J. Think “Administration Of Justice”. The situation must meet all three criteria.

A = Ability. The person deemed to be a threat must possess the ability or power to kill or maim.

O = Opportunity. The person deemed to be a threat must be capable of immediately employing his power to kill or maim.

J = Jeopardy. This means that the person deemed to be a threat must be acting in such a manner that a reasonable and prudent person would conclude beyond doubt that his intent is to kill or cripple.

All of the above are judged by the doctrine of the “reasonable man”. That is, what would a reasonable and prudent person have done in that situation knowing what the defendant knew at the time? After the fact information is inadmissible into the equation. Your defense of self-defense is affirmative if you knew all of the above at the time you employed deadly force.

The Armed Citizen

Janice:

My thoughts exactly, on a 22 caliber gun…It’s not what you’ve got, it’s where you put it.

Originally posted on tacticalprofessor:

A writer from Gun Digest contacted me about the Five Year Armed Citizen study TAC 5 year w tables I did a while back. He asked if I would give him a quote about it, so this was my reply.

“Analyzing incidents involving Armed Private Citizens, rather than LE/MIL situations, leads to different conclusions. Common discussion topics among Armed Private Citizens, such as equipment and caliber issues, rarely are the cause of Negative Outcomes. Negative Outcomes result from 1) lack of conceptual understanding leading to poor decision-making, and 2) lack of appropriate and necessary skills, techniques, and tactics.

Carrying and being capable of using a small gun adequately will yield much better results than owning a large pistol that isn’t carried or shot well. More criminals have been planted in the ground by .22s that hit than by .45s that miss.”

PLY22 for TacProf

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Tactics Against Active Shooters

Janice:

More excellent tips from The Tactical Professor…

Originally posted on tacticalprofessor:

Gila Hayes of the Armed Citizens’ Legal Defense Network asked to interview me more in depth about last June’s Las Vegas murders. Many Network members have been wondering about tactics in such a situation and I am pleased that she came to me for some input.

Without judging a person who died trying to save others, it behooves us to learn what we can from incidents in which an armed citizen intervenes, and so the death of Joseph Wilcox, the man who died trying to stop the June 9th Las Vegas Walmart attack offers multiple lessons. Many armed citizens only get so far as to say, “I hope I would make better tactical decisions if faced with a similar situation.” Still, without guidance, the need to plan better responses to interdict an active shooter in a crowded, public venue never gets beyond recognizing that we are unprepared to deal with…

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